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When the first digital computers were developed, they were far too big, slow and unwieldy to be practically usable. This was because the main system memory of computer systems at that time was stored on magnetic drums that were several inches in diameter and required several feet of physical space to store.[3] In the middle of the 1970s, the first personal computers began to appear. They were large, expensive, complex, and required a roomful of electronic equipment. Assembling them was difficult. Even small machines were difficult to work on, and many operators left their computer at home so that they could focus on more important tasks. The affordability, size, and power of these early personal computers was limited by the huge amounts of memory required. The largest computer system at the time had a memory capacity of less than 8Kbytes,[4] and many more users were considering the PC to be a very expensive toy than a useful tool. The microprocessor was invented in the mid-1970s by Federico Faggin and Mike Stoll of Intel in order to create a cheap, powerful, reliable small processor for a personal computer.[5] Instead of using a complicated central processing unit, which required many transistors and was very expensive, the microprocessor is a single-transistor chip, and can be embedded in other chips to control other functions. In 1981, Commodore produced the Commodore 64 (C64). This was the first truly commercial personal computer to use microprocessors, and popularized the home use of computers, because it was relatively inexpensive. In the 1980s, IBM and Microsoft introduced the IBM PC compatible, which is the basis for most computers sold today. This allowed people to upgrade their computers without buying a whole new system. During the mid-1980s, personal computers began to appear that were small enough to be easily portable. In 1984, Apple introduced the Macintosh, which was revolutionary because it used a graphical user interface (GUI) instead of a command-line interface like the IBM PC. It also included a mouse, which allowed people to move about the desktop and click on things rather than using a keyboard only. In 1985, Commodore introduced the Amiga 1000, which was the first truly graphical computer. Intel introduced the Intel 8086 microprocessor in August 1980, which was first used in the IBM PCjr. With its smaller instruction set, the 8086 could be used in a much smaller computer than previous microprocessors. It remained the primary processor used in personal computers until




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