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First Summit Deaf Translators: Today & Beyond
Pre-Publication Issue No.6
A Summary and Reflection of the Summit
Janis Cole 


Coming Soon


Mind the Gap: What is Missing for Deaf Interpreters and Translators
Robert Adam             

ASL by Krishna Madaparthi 4:14 - 11:23


Since the 1960s and 1970s, sign language interpreting has emerged from the shadows and grown into a profession with training courses and accreditation systems implemented in many countries around the world (Napier, Goswell, & McKee, 2006). Deaf interpreters have subsequently become used in different settings and domains (Adam, Carty, & Stone, 2011; Boudreault, 2005; Forestal, 2005), and it is argued that Deaf interpreters and translators as a profession are following a similar trajectory as hearing interpreters followed 30 or 40 years ago.   There are also still gaps in training, recognition and employment opportunities. What are they, and what needs to be done? What are the research gaps that reflect the gaps in the training and practice of Deaf interpreters and translators? My discussion includes highlighting common and related themes, identifying ideas for further research and key areas for collaboration.


This paper will conclude with a summary of both the first Summit of Deaf Translators and the Symposium on Signed Language Interpretation and Translation Research, highlighting common and related themes, identifying ideas for further research and key areas for collaboration.

Painting White Stripes on Road: Looking Back and Forward
MJ Bienvenu
ASL by April Jackson 11:23 - 20:19 


In 1984, I wrote an article about my experience trying to translate an article titled “A Road Being built…” This presentation at the summit will look back at the efforts of many Deaf people at translation, what we know about their ideologies – that is, the values, beliefs, and attitude about language that they exhibit and look into professionalization of the field of translation.


Looking back and reading the paper, I realize how little I dreamt – all translators I thought of were non-Deaf.  Over the years, there is a growing number of Deaf translators and if I am not mistaken, all of them are on-side jobs, or on contract.  With better understanding of what translation involves, with various theories, we are better able to translate, mostly from written form to signed languages. In creating this space, we need to look into a different frame to consider what translation means to us and bring to the table to professionalize the field and practice.  Without any doubt it should be Deaf people doing the work.  We all can work together how to make it a permanent profession, with Deaf people having a fulltime job as professional, licensed translators.  Not only this, but each person will be encouraged to do self-analysis and recognize their identities as translators – one of the first steps towards professionalization. 


I, as presenter, will encourage participants to look at the field and work together to make it happen and complete the road. And dream bigger.

Contemporary Translations
Christopher Tester
ASL by Jay Krieger  20:19 - 33:06


Contemporary Translation will explore the historical evolution of translation and its parallel to interpreting. We will touch on some theoretical frameworks including but not limiting to Nida, Skopos theory, Hatim and Mason, and a few others. These theories will tie into the role of Deaf Interpreters and how Deaf Interpreters can and should be an integral part of the translation process from English to ASL and vice-versa. We will compare and contrast between translation and sight translation. Participants will engage within group activities focusing on translations and group discussions.

Translation Texts: An Insight into the Translation Strategies
Monique Holt

ASL by Krissy Lemon 33:06 - 40:30


Literature related to the effectiveness of translation strategies used is lacking. Translation scholars define characteristics of a translation strategy and techniques employed in various ways. Unfortunately, there are no standardized practice or publications available on translation for signed performance. From my experience, to elevate in ASL translating approach from the frozen text, I developed a tool: translation “mapping” system. “Mapping” plays a vital role in translating process. It gives the clarity of writer's message and better use of ASL. From a linguistic perspective, exploring this approach could have significant pedagogical implications.

Experiences of Deaf Translators as a Foundation for Building a Theory: A Grounded Theory approach
Christian Rathmann
by Howard Nigel 40:30 - 48:19


Since recently, the everyday practices of Deaf translators in various contexts in several countries have been documented. Especially, a number of issues which are pertaining to Deaf translators has been raised to date and will be illustrated: (a) cognitive processes and linguistic strategies used in the work of Deaf translators, (b) team work of translators including preparation, presentation and analysis, (c) Deaf translators working for specific populations with particular language needs, (d) Translation products and text genres, (e) Media translation, (f) Literature translation and (g) theatre translation as well as (h) sight translation as a cultural practice. This kind of knowledge has been usually generated from Deaf translators’ experiences.


As a further step, I discuss the issue on how such Deaf translation theories can be created and developed. I will use the Grounded Theory (Glasser and Strauss 1967) as a point of departure: how can we establish such a theory from data systematically obtained from (social) processes of translation’s work and experiences.

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